Thursday, April 4, 2013

Garcinia cambogia, antiobesity, Brindle berry, brindall berry, garcinia, malabar tamarind,gambooge, gorikapuli, uppagi, garcinia kola, mangosteen oil tree




Garcinia Cambogia


           
Latin Name: Garcinia cambogia
Common Names: citrin, gambooge, Brindal Berry, Gorikapuli, HCA, Hydroxycitric acid, Malabar Tamarind
Synonyms: Gutta gamba. Gummigutta. Tom Rong. Gambodia. Garcinia Morella.
Saskrit name: Vrikshamla, Kankusta
Other Common Names of Garcinia Cambogia: Brindle berry, brindall berry, garcinia, malabar tamarind,gambooge, gorikapuli, uppagi, garcinia kola, mangosteen oil tree.


Introduction : Garcinia cambogia is a small, sweet, exotic fruit native to South India and Southeast Asia. Garcinia has garnered a lot of attention of late as a popular natural weight loss aid. The reason is that the rind of this pumpkin like fruit is rich in a substance called hydroxycitric acid / HCA, a principle extract of Garcinia cambogia. Garcinia is a source for a revolutionary natural diet ingredient which is currently a rage in America, Japan, Europe, and other western countries.
It flowers during the hot season and fruits ripen during the rainy season..The fruit is harvested, dried and ground into a powder.
Garcinia cambogia extract is the calcium salt of hydroxyl citric acid (Both 50% and 60% hydroxy citric acids are available), which is obtained from water extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit .
It is non-toxic, tasteless, odorless powder and found to be very effective herbal medicine for controlling obesity and cholesterol by inhibiting lipogenesis in our body. It is a well established fat burning agent all over the world.

Chemical Constituents: The plant contains various chemical constituents such as Xanthones, Benzophenones,Garcinol and plant acids like (-) Hydroxy Citric Acid, Maleic acid, Citric acid.
HCA is naturally occurring fruit acid found in the outer layer covering of the fruits of Garcinia cambogia.
HCA is highly unstable and therefore extracted as a salt of preferably as calcium or potassium.


Therapeutic Uses:
The active constituent in this herb is called Hydroxycitric acid or HCA and is gaining a reputation for assisting weight loss through appetite suppression and by reducing the body’s ability to form adipose(fatty) tissue during times of overeating.
* Garcinia has also been historically used to treat gastric ulcers. A 2002 study indicates this herb works primarily through the action of one of these plant’s constituents, garcinol.Garcinol is known to lower  acidity in the stomach and protects the gastric mucosa.
* The rind of garcinia cambogia is also astringent, which is why it was also historically used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentry as well as having the added benefit in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers.
* The ability for Garcinia’s component, HCA, to reduce blood lipid levels and lower blood cholesterol is another feature of this amazing natural medicine.
* More recently, it has been proposed that Garcinia cambogia has a hepato protective ability against external toxins, such as alcohol. A recent study showed that Garcinia prevented liver cells from becoming fibrotic and stopped cell damage caused by high blood lipid levels.
*Garcinia cambogia, an exotic fruit grown in South India, has been used to impart a distinctive sour flavour to Indian cooking. It is the source for a revolutionary natural diet ingredient which is currently a rage in America, Japan, Europe and other western countries.

Plant Description : Garcinia cambogia is a moderate-sized, evergreen tree and the flowers are unisexual, sessile and axillary. The leaves are dark green, shining, elliptic to obovate. It bears sweet-sour mixed fruits native to SE Asia and India. The fruit may resemble a small yellow or reddish pumpkin, or it may have a unique purple color. The fruit of Garcinia cambogia has been traditionally used in food preparation and cooking, having a distinctive taste. Garcinia has garnered a lot of attention of late as a popular natural weight loss aid. The reason is that the rind of this pumpkin like fruit is rich in a substance called hydroxycitric acid / HCA.



History : In Ayurveda, it is said that the sour flavors, such as those from Garcinia, activate digestion. Garcinia has also been considered to make foods more filling and satisfying, and has been used routinely for many centuries with no known toxicity. This herb has been used historically in India to support the treatment of various health conditions.
Garcinia the 'cambodge tree' is a good-sized glabrous and evergreen tree belonging to the family Clusiaceae and presently known under the scientific name, Garcinia Cambogia (L.). It is commonly seen in the western ghats of Kerala, Karnataka, and in Sri Lanka. In Kerala the tree is seen in plenty in mid-Travencore tract and in Karnataka in Konkan tract. Garcinia shows wide variability in yield, growth habit, and fruit qualities. Both male and hermaphrodite trees are met with in the genus.
The tree is very much adapted to both hilltops and plain lands alike. But, its performance is best in riverbanks and valleys. It grows well in dry or occasionally water logged or flooded soils. Usually seedling takes 10-12 years to start bearing. The percentage of male trees in population varies from 50-60 per cent and this also creates much difficulty in the cultivation of the crop. Problems such as lack of high yielder, planting grafts prepared from elite mother trees can solve variability in population and occurrence of male trees.
The economic part of the plant is its mature fruit which are highly acidic. The rinds of the ripe fruit are processed and used as a condiment in fish and prawn preparations to impart flavour and taste and to improve the keeping quality. The extracts obtained from the mature fruit rind, Hydroxy Citric Acid, attracts foreign markets - thanks to its use in medicines controlling obesity. It is also one of the ingredients in many ayurvedic medicines.

Varieties
Even though garcinia is one of the oldest tree spices of the State, only recently that it has attained international importance. Hence research work in the field of crop improvement and crop husbandry is very meagre. Most of the trees in the field are of seedling origin and hence they exhibit wide variability. Recently Kerala Agricultural University has identified a few promising types which are being multiplied for cultivation.

Planting Materials
Use grafts prepared through Soft grafting/ side grafting or the healthy seedlings raised in the nursery, for cultivation. If seedlings are planted, 50-60 percent will be male, and hence planting of grafts are advocated as they ensure maternal characters and early bearing tendency.




Propagation by seedlings
Selection of mother trees: Mother trees which give steady annual yield, having a mean fruit weight of 200-275g, high acid content and low tannin content are located, Seeds are collected from freshly harvested and fully ripened fruits and washed in running water and spread in a thin layer under roof. By twentieth day, seeds will be ready for sowing. Seeds at the rate two per bag are sown in poly bags during the month of August-September. It takes five to seven months for the seed to start germination. Usually seeds start sprouting in the month of December and they come above the soil surface by February. In order to avoid delayed germination, simple seed treatment methods are employed.

Method 1: Processed seeds (after drying under shade) are given a mechanical treatment. Seed coat of such seeds are removed using a sharp knife without injuring the ivory coloured cotyledon. These ivory coloured cotyledons are sown afresh in poly bags at a depth of 2 inches and they start germinating in 20-25 days after sowing.
Method 2: Seeds, after removing the seed coat, are treated with gibberelic acid @ 250 ppm for six hours, and later they are soaked in Dithane M-45 @ 4g/I for two hours. They are sown in nursery bags and irrigated daily. Seeds germinate in 16-20 days time.
Method 3: After removing the seed coat, seeds treated with gibberelic acid @ 250 ppm for six hours, and later they are soaked in Dithane M-45 @ 4g/I for two hours. These seeds are then transferred to a white poly propylene cover of the size 20 cm x 25 cm along with 30-50 ml of filtered water. The poly bag along with the air inside is tied tightly using a rubber band. Such seeds germinate in 10-12 days after sowing. In a poly bag, about 500-750 seeds can be incubated at a time. Sprouted seeds are picked up and sown in the nursery bags kept under shade.

Raising seedlings: Seedlings can be kept under open condition or under shade. They are to be watered regularly on alternate days during summer months. Those seedlings, which are kept under shade, after 3-4 months, are placed under direct sun light to trigger growth. At this age, apply FYM @ 50g per bag. In six to seven months time, seedlings will be ready for planting.
Propagation by grafting
Seedling usually takes 10-12 years for bearing. Fifty percent of the population will be male and unproductive. There will be variation in the inheritance of maternal characters in the progenies. For these reasons, grafts are preferred to seedlings. Grafts start bearing in three-four years time, true to type progenies are obtained, height of the tree can be controlled and more number of trees can be planted in a unit area. Two types of grafting methods are employed: soft-wood grafting and approach grafting.

Soft wood grafting
Scions are selected only from specific elite trees showing regular bearing tendency, yielding large sized and quality fruits.
Collection of scions: Straight growing, healthy young shoots emerging from the primary branches with whorled leaf arrangement are selected. They are cut at a length of 6-10 cm length and stored in poly bags under humid condition. Leaves are partly removed and the cut end is shaped to a wedge of three-four cm long by giving slanting cuts on the two opposite sides.

Preparation of root stock: Stock plants having 3-4 mm stem thickness is ideal for grafting. Selected plants will be deheaded at two nodes below the terminal bud and all the leaves are partly removed. Grafting is done using scion and root stock of same thickness.

Grafting: The wedge of the scion is inserted into the cleft of the root stock and the graft joint is secured firmly by black polythene tape of 1.5-2 cm wide and 30 cm long.

Care In the nursery: Immediately after grafting they are kept either in mist house or covered with transparent poly-propylene cover and kept under shade. By the thirtieth day the grafts would have established and new leaves start emerging. The grafts are then removed from the mist house or the polythene cover and kept under shade. Grafts are to be watered daily using rose can or microsprinkler. Care should be taken to remove sprouts emerging from root stock at frequent intervals. Three months after grafting the plants will be ready for planting in the main field. just before planting in the main field the grafts are left under open condition for hardening.

Approach grafting: Here also stock plants having three-four mm thickness are preferred and they are brought to the place where the mother tree is located. Grafting is done as in other crops and they are kept intact for 45 days by which time union occurs. Graft is detached from the mother tree in three steps. The main disadvantage is that only a limited number of grafts can be produced in this method. Forty five days after grafting, they will be ready for transferring to the main nursery for hardening. Grafts are to be watered daily using rose can or micro-sprinkler. Care should be taken to remove sprouts emerging from rootstock at frequent intervals. Leaf folder pests are very common in the nursery. Spray Ekalux @ 2ml/L of water at monthly intervals.

Planting and Management of Plantations
The crop can be raised as a pure or as a perennial intercrop of coconut, arecanut etc. Pits of the size 75x75x75 cm in hard and laterite soils, 50x50x50 cm in sandy and alluvial soils, at a spacing of 4m x 4m for grafting and 7m x 7m for seedlings, are prepared. In hill slopes of 15% or more, for planting grafts rows are spaced at 5 to 5.5 m and 3.5m between trees in a row. For planting seedlings, rows are spread at 8 to 12 m apart and at 6 to 8 m for trees in row. Planting is generally done during July-October months. Under existing coconut plantations of 25 years and above, spacing shall be so adjusted that it should alternate with the palms in the rows. Under Kuttanad conditions, where bunds and channels alternate, planting can be done in between two palms. Planting pits are filled with top soil and two kg of compost or well decomposed cattle manure and Iog of sevin or lindane dust, to avoid white ants attack, before planting. The graft union shall remain just above the ground level. Plants are to be supported with bamboo split of 2.5' long. One month after planting the polythene tape around the graft union is gently removed.

Manuring
Apply 10 kg of cattle manure or compost per seedling/graft during the first year. Increase the quantity gradually till a well grown tree of 15 years and above receives 50 kg of organic manure per year. Apply NPK mixture at the rate of 20:18:50 g/plant during the first year. This is doubled in the second year and gradually increased to 500:250: 1000 g/plant/year so as to obtain full dose at 15th year onwards.

Purning
Grafts will grow fast from second year onwards. Strong support of casuarina poles are to be given at this stage. By fifth year the tree will have 3 to 4m height. From third year onwards some of the fast growing branches are to be pruned so as to balance the weight. In the fifth year the height of the plant may be maintained at 3.5 to 4m and by seventh year at 4 to 4.5m.

Pests and Diseases
Hard scales and beetles are the common pests infesting the crop. The hard scales desap the leaves and tender shoots. Both the beetles and grubs defoliate the crop inflicting heavy loss on yield. These can be controlled by spraying Rogor or Nuvacron @ 1.5 ml/l. Sooty mould is seen associated with the hard scales. Seedling blight in the nursery stage is very common and this can be controlled by spraying I% Bordeaux mixture or Dithane M 45 @ 4 g/l. Leaf folders are very common in the nursery. Spray Ekalux @ 2ml/lit at monthly intervals to control the pest.

Harvesting
Seed-grown plants start bearing generally at the age of 10-12 years. Grafts start bearing from the third year onwards and will attain the stage of full bearing at the age of 12 to 15 years. Flowering occurs in January-March and fruits mature in July. There are reports of off season bearers, which bear two times a year, ie., during january-july and September-February. Mature fruits which are orange yellow in colour, either drop from the tree or are harvested manually. The fruit rind is separated for processing immediately after harvest.

Processing
Separated fruit rind is first sun dried and then either smoked or oven dried. In order to increase the storage life and impart softness, the dried rind is mixed with common salt @ 150 g and coconut oil @ 50 ml per kg of dried rind.


Method for collection of the Resin : In order to obtain the gum-resin incisions are made into the tree, or a large slice is pared from the bark, from which the juice flows thick, viscid, and bright-yellow, which is scraped off and dried in the sun. If left on the tree, it speedily concretes into dry tears or irregular masses.

1.Ceylon gamboge:- It is generally collected, by making incisions into the bark, into which bamboo joints are inserted to catch the oozing fluid, which subsequently solidifies. It is removed from the bamboo by slowly rotating them over a fire until the water has dried out sufficiently to allow the receptacle to be detached from the hardened gamboge.
2.Pipe gamboge:- The best kinds are the pipe gamboge, consisting of cylindrical pieces, often cohering together, forming irregular masses weighing several pounds.




Phytochemistry : The plant contains acids tartaric, citric and phosporic. The latex of Garcinia cambogia contains two polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivatives, camboginol (I) and cambogin (II).

Chemistry : The major phytoconstituent in Garcinia cambogia is Hydroxycitric acid. This principal acid has been found to suppress the fatty acid synthesis, lipogenesis, food intake, and promotes glycogenesis, gluconeogenesis and induced weight loss.

How it works : Garcinia Cambogia fills the glycogen stores in the liver and other tissues, thereby reducing appetite while increasing energy levels. Garcinia Cambogia lowers the production of triglycerides and cholesterol and may also increase thermogenesis, the burning of calories. Unlike chemical stimulants commonly used in weight loss products, Garcinia Cambogia does not act on the central nervous system. This means that Garcinia Cambogia will not cause insomnia, nervousness, changes in blood pressure or heart rate and its effectiveness will not diminish with time.
           
Who can take Garcinia? Because herbal medicines are relatively mild and gentle on the human body, Garcinia can be taken by practically everyone, regardless of age and gender. Garcinia can be taken for the following reasons:
·         Helps reduce body’s ability to store fat.
·         Lowers body weight through appetite control.
·         Lowers serum triglycerides.
·         Creates a process in the body called thermogenesis.
·         Helps with catarrhal conditions of the throat, urinary system, and uterus.


Benefits & Uses :
·         Garcinia has also been considered to make foods more filling and satisfying.
·         Garcinia cambogia was able to decrease the acidity and to increase the mucosal defence in the gastric areas, thereby justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent.
·         Garcinia does not contain any addictive components and can be taken without fear of addiction for extended periods of time.
·         Garcinia also contains significant amounts of Vitamin C and has been used as a heart tonic.
·         Garcinia, when taken over a period of time, has the ability to slow production of fat and help the body metabolize it more efficiently.




ABSTRACT
Obesity is a major problem in the effluent societies of developing and developed world and the Health Risks associated with the obesity are Diabetes mellitus, Heart disease, High b.p.,etc.
WHO report –Globally with more than 1 billion adults overweight
- at least 300 million of them clinically obese.
Main cause of obesity is a person consumes more calories from food than he or she burns.
Now a days herbal drug are used because of its lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs.
This review provides complete information about the herbal drug Garcinia cambogia and its action in controlling weight.
The Garcinia fruit is a rich source of hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the active agent that aids in weight loss by inhibiting fat production and suppressing appetite.
Garcinia cambogia extract is quickly becoming a popular ingredient in many weight loss supplements.

GARCINIA- THE ANTI-OBESITY DRUG:


The Garcinia fruit is a rich source of hydroxycitric acid (HCA), the active agent that aids in weight loss by inhibiting fat production and suppressing appetite.
Garcinia contains citrine, an extract that is 50-60% HCA, which inhibits an enzyme that helps the body synthesize fat for storage in adipose tissue. HCA promotes energy, inhibits lipogenesis, lowers the production of cholesterol and fatty acids, increases the production of glycogen in the liver, suppresses appetite, and increases the body's production of heat by activating the process of thermogenesis.
Garcinia cambogia extract is quickly becoming a popular ingredient in many weight loss supplements. Many studies have been pointing to strong possibilities that it will help some people to lose weight. But like similar studies, the evidence is not conclusive. Inspite of this it is been cited in many weight loss supplements as been an active ingredient for losing weight.
Garcinia cambogia belongs to the citrus family like oranges and lemons. It is a small tropical fruit that is too sour to eat but the rind is used as a spice in Indian cooking. It is indigenous to India and Africa. The active ingredient usually accredited for weight loss in this fruit is its extract, hydroxycitric acid.
Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) unlike caffeine is not a stimulant. Neither is it an appetite suppressant, both of which work directly on the nerve centers of the brain.
Both stimulants and appetite suppressants can have undesired side effects, including causing food binges any time you stop taking them.
Instead, HCA satisfies the body's need for energy and improves the signaling system that the body uses to tell the brain when it has eaten enough. In overweight people this response is often delayed, causing them to continue to eat more than they need.
HCA seems to work best for people who overeat when they are anxious or stressed, as it will give the same calming effect that they get from food. Generally you do not need to eat any special foods when you are taking HCA, and there are no 'forbidden foods'. Choose healthy foods and you should find that you lose weight and fat slowly but steadily without really trying. You can take slightly smaller portions if you wish and choose fruit instead of sugary snacks but you should not need to go hungry. This is a very natural way to lose weight.
Garcinia cambogia extract (HCA) in weight loss supplements is usually combined with chromium.
Chromium is a mineral that is often lacking in our diets as we get older and a chromium deficit can contribute to weight gain and possibly diabetes. HCA and chromium seem to work in a positive synergy to regulate the body's blood sugar levels. However if you have diabetes already, you should see your doctor before taking any products containing chromium.
Though HCA shows possibilities it is best to be cautious just like with all other weight loss supplements. For example do not take HCA if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Consult a doctor before giving it to children.
You may also want to avoid HCA if you suffer from migraine or arthritis which can be worsened by citrus fruits.
HCA has some significant advantages over many other weight loss supplements ingredients because it has been extensively tested in research laboratories on both human and animal subjects and no side effects have been found. Consequently it is considered a natural weight loss supplement.

COMPARISON BETWEEN HERBAL AND SYNTHETIC DRUGS:
Synthetic Drugs:
Sibutramine:
Sibutramine (usually in the form of the hydrochloride monohydrate salt) is an oral anorexiant.
Sibutramine is a neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitor that reduces the reuptake of serotonin (by 53%),norepinephrine (by 54%), and dopamine (by 16%), serotonergic action, in particular, is thought to influence appetite.thereby increasing the levels of these substances in synaptic clefts and helping enhance satiety.
Side effects
A higher number of cardiovascular events have been observed in people taking sibutramine versus control (11.4% vs. 10.0%).
In 2010 the FDA noted the concerns that sibutramine increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease.
Frequently encountered side effects are: dry mouth, paradoxically increased appetite, nausea, strange taste in the mouth, upset stomach, constipation, trouble sleeping, dizziness, drowsiness, menstrual cramps/pain, headache, flushing, or joint/muscle pain.
Sibutramine can substantially increase blood pressure and pulse in some patients. Therefore regular monitoring needs to be performed.
The following side effects are infrequent but serious and require immediate medical attention: cardiac arrhythmias, paresthesia, mental/mood changes (e.g., excitement, restlessness, confusion, depression, rare thoughts of suicide).
Symptoms that require urgent medical attention are seizures, problems urinating, abnormal bruising or bleeding, melena, hematemesis, jaundice, fever and rigors, chest pain, hemiplegia, abnormal vision,dyspnea and edema.
Orlistat
Orlistat is used for the treatment of obesity. The amount of weight loss achieved with orlistat varies. In  one year clinical trials, between 35.5% and 54.8% of subjects achieved a 5% or greater decrease in body mass, although not all of this mass was necessarily fat.
Its primary function is preventing the absorption of fats from the human diet, thereby reducing caloric intake.
Mechanism of Action:
Orlistat works by inhibiting gastric and pancreatic lipases, the enzymes that break down triglycerides in the intestine. When lipase activity is blocked, triglycerides from the diet are not hydrolyzed into absorbable free fatty acids, and are excreted undigested instead.
Side Effects:
The primary side effects of the drug are gastrointestinal related, and include steatorrhea (oily, loose stools with excessive flatus due to unabsorbed fats reaching the large intestine), fecal incontinence and frequent or urgent bowel movements.
An analysis of over 900 orlistat users in Ontario showed that their rate of acute kidney injury was more than triple that of non-users.
The putative mechanism for this effect is postulated to be excessive oxalate absorption from the gut and its subsequent deposition in the kidney, with excessive oxalate absorption being a known consequence of fat malabsorption.
A 2006 animal study linked orlistat with aberrant crypt foci (ACF), lesions found in the colon which is believed to be one of the earliest precursors of colon cancer.
Phentermine:
 Phentermine, a contraction of "phenyl-tertiarybutylamine", is an appetite suppressant of the phenethylamine class.
It is an amphetamine like stimulant.
It is approved as an appetite suppressant to help reduce weight in obese patients when used short-term and combined with exercise, diet, and behavioral modification.
It is typically prescribed for individuals who are at increased medical risk because of their weight and works by helping to release certain chemicals in the brain that control appetite.
Mechanism of Action:
Phentermine works on the hypothalamus portion of the brain to stimulate the adrenal glands to release norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter or chemical messenger that signals a fight-or-flight response, reducing hunger.
Phentermine works outside the brain as well to release epinephrine or adrenaline causing fat cells to break down stored fat, but the principal basis of efficacy is hunger-reduction.
At clinically relevant doses, phentermine also releases serotonin and dopamine, but to a much lesser extent than that of norepinephrine.
Adverse Effects:
Generally, phentermine appears to be relatively well tolerated.It can produce side effects consistent with its catecholamine-releasing properties, e.g., tachycardia (increased heart rate) and elevated blood pressure, but the incidence and magnitude of these appear to be less than with the amphetamines.
Because phentermine acts through sympathomimetic pathways, the drug may increase blood pressure and heart rate. It may also cause palpitations, restlessness, and insomnia.
Additionally, phentermine has the potential to cause psychological dependence. After short term use, tolerance begins and can be followed by rebound weight gain.
More common side effects:
Cardiovascular: Primary pulmonary hypertension and/or regurgitant cardiac valvular disease, palpitation, tachycardia, elevation of blood pressure.
Central Nervous System: Overstimulation, restlessness, dizziness,insomnia, euphoria, dysphoria, tremor, headache.
Gastrointestinal: Dryness of the mouth,unpleasant taste, diarrhea, constipation, other gastrointestinal disturbances.
Allergic: Urticaria, endocrine Impotence, changes in libido.
Herbal Drugs:
Herbal Drugs is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts.
Potential Side Effects of Garcinia Cambogia:
There are no known side effects for using this herb, however, it is not recommended for diabetics or people suffering any dementia syndrome, including Alzheimer’s; and in pregnant and lactating women.
Garcinia cambogia does have contraindications with certain medications, and it is important to discuss this with your health care professional.